Ferroalloy refers to various alloys of iron with a high proportion of one or more other elements such as manganese, aluminium, or silicon. They are used in the production of steels and alloys. The alloy has distinctive qualities to steel and cast iron or serve important functions during production and are, therefore, closely associated with the iron and steel industry, the leading consumer of ferroalloysSteels have been around for centuries and are unfairly perceived as an old and stagnant technological area. In fact, steels-making is continuously improving and new and unique grades are being introduced into the market in a pace never seen before. The combination of affordability and the possibility to tailor the properties of steels through alloying and processing has guaranteed the position of steel as the most widely used functional metal in modern civilisation. There are a number of different types of alloys containing iron.
Some of the most important include:
- Carbon steels -- the main alloying additive is carbon. Mild steel is the most common due to its low cost. It is neither brittle nor ductile, has relatively low tensile strength, and is malleable. Surface hardness can be increased through carburizing. High carbon steels have a higher carbon content which provides a much higher strength at the cost of ductility.
- Alloy steels -- (iron and carbon) alloyed with other metals to improve properties. The most common metals in low alloyed steels are molybdenum, chromium, and nickel to improve weldability, formability, wear resistance, and corrosion resistance.
- Stainless steels -- contain a minimum of 10% chromium. There are many grades of stainless steel, but the most common grade used for typical corrosion resistant applications is type 304, also known as 18-8. The term 18- 8 refers to the amount of chromium (18%) and nickel (8%) combined with iron and other elements in smaller quantities. The metal’s finish is depicted by a number, 3 to 8, with 3 being the roughest and 8 being a mirror-like finish. Other specifications to consider include textures and coatings.
- Tool steels -- designed for being made into tools. They are known for toughness, resistance to abrasion, ability to hold a cutting edge, and/or their resistance to deformation at high temperatures. The three types of tool steel available are cold work steels used in lower operating temperature environments, hot work steels used at elevated temperatures, and high speed steels able to withstand even higher temperatures giving them the ability to cut at higher speeds.
- Cast iron -- is an iron alloy derived from pig iron, alloyed with carbon and silicon. Carbon is added to the base melt in amounts that exceed the solubility limits in iron and precipitates out as graphite particles. Silicon is added to the melt to nucleate the graphite which optimizes the properties of cast iron. Often dismissed as a cheap, dirty, brittle metal; cast iron is getting much more attention and use today because of its machinability, light weight, strength, wear resistance, and damping properties.
- Maraging steels -- carbon free iron-nickel alloys with additions of cobalt, molybdenum, titanium, and aluminum. The term maraging is derived from the strengthening mechanism, which is transforming the alloy to martensite with subsequent age hardening. With yield strengths between 1400 and 2400 MPa, maraging steels belong to the category of ultra-high-strength materials. The high strength is combined with excellent toughness properties and weldability.
Teckan carries a comprehensive range of different types of various ferro-alloy coil, sheet and profiles. Our trained technical salesmen can offer you the best grade for your products and advise on new projects for cost benefits, strength, processing and anti corrosion advice.